Author Archives: Glen Griffin

Biotech Research Methodology

Biotechnology is a field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine, and other fields requiring biological products or processes. Biotechnology covers many topics, from basic research on how cells work to applied research on developing new products and processes.

Basic biotechnology research often focuses on understanding how cells work and how they interact with their environment. This knowledge is then used to develop new ways to produce or use biological products and processes. For example, researchers may study how a particular cell produces a certain protein and how that protein functions in the cell and then use this knowledge to develop a way to produce the protein in larger quantities. Some of the research methodologies include:

1) In vitro cell culture: involves culturing cells in a laboratory environment outside their natural habitat. This allows researchers to study the behavior of cells in a controlled environment and manipulate them to suit their needs.

2) Molecular cloning: This technique creates copies of genes or other DNA segments. Molecular cloning is often used to create large quantities of a particular gene or DNA segment for further study.

3) Genetic engineering: This directly manipulates an organism’s genes. Genetic engineering can be used to add, remove, or change the DNA of an organism. This allows researchers to change the characteristics of an organism, such as its appearance, metabolism, or disease resistance.

4) Genomics: is the study of an organism’s entire genome, which is all its genetic information. Genomics can be used to identify genes associated with particular traits or diseases. It can also be used to develop new diagnostic tests, treatments, and preventive measures.

5) Proteomics: This is the study of an organism’s proteins. Proteomics can be used to identify and characterize proteins and to understand their functions.

6) Metabolomics: This is the study of an organism’s metabolism. Metabolomics can be used to identify and characterize metabolites and to understand their functions.

7) Systems biology: is the study of how the different parts of a biological system work together. Systems biology can be used to develop new treatments and cures for diseases.

8) Computational biology: This is the use of computers to model and simulate biological systems. Computational biology can be used to understand how biological systems work and to develop new treatments and cures for diseases.

9) Synthetic biology: is the design and construction of new biological parts, devices, and systems. Synthetic biology can be used to create new medicines, fuels, and other products.

10) Nanotechnology: uses microscopic particles to build new materials and devices. Nanotechnology can be used to create new medicines, diagnostics, and treatments.


Biotechnology research is essential for the development of new products and processes. Biotechnology has already led to the development of many vital products and processes, such as insulin for treating diabetes, human growth hormone for treating dwarfism, and gene therapy for treating genetic diseases. Biotechnology research will continue to play a vital role in developing new and improved products and processes for the benefit of humanity.

Mixing Calculations and Chemical Reaction

Chemicals come usually in a concentrated form and have to be mixed with other chemicals or water to create the desired solution. The process of mixing different solutions together is called dilution. There are two ways to calculate the amount of solution needed to create a dilution. The first method is by using percentages and the second one is by using molarity.

Based on percentages

Mixing Calculations and Chemical Reaction solutions based on percentages may be quoted as percent volume (v/v), or percent weight (w/v). To dilute a solution based on percentages, you need to know the percentage of each component in the original solution, otherwise, you wouldn’t carry out a successful chemical experiment.

The first step is determining how the percent solution is given, i.e. whether v/v or w/v. Normally, a solid solute dissolved in a solvent is given as w/v, whereas a liquid solute in a solvent is given as v/v.

If the solution is given as v/v, use the relation C1V1=C2V2, where C represents the concentration, V represents volume, and subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the initial and final concentrations, respectively.

For example: You have 500 mL of a 5% v/v solution of acetic acid. You want to make a 2% v/v dilution. What volume of water must you add?


5%*500 mL=2%*V2

0.05*500 mL=2%*V2

25 mL=2%*V2

V2=1250 mL-500 mL=750 mL

Therefore, you would add 750 mL of water to 500 ml of the 5% solution to make a 2% solution.

If the solution is given as w/v, you need to consider that the solute contributes to the final volume of the solution. When making such a solution, first pour the solute into the volumetric flask before adding the solvent.

For example, a 10% w/v NaCl solution means that 10 grams of NaCl are dissolved in water to make 100ml of solution.

Based on Molarity

Molarity is the number of moles of solute per liter (L) of solution and is represented by the symbol M. To dilute a solution based on molarity, you need to know the molarity of the original solution.

The equation for diluting a solution based on molarity is M1V1=M2V2, where M represents molarity, V represents volume, and subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the initial and final molarities, respectively.

For example: You have 500 mL of a 0.1 M NaOH solution. You want to make a 0.01 M dilution. What volume of water must you add?


0.1M*500 mL=0.01M*V2

50 mL=0.01M*V2

V2=5000 mL-500 mL=4500 mL

Therefore, you would add 4500 mL of water to 500 mL of the 0.1 M solution to make a 0.01 M solution.

Both methods are useful for creating chemical solutions for different chemical reactions, but you need to know which one to use depending on the information given.

Liquid liquid mixing and solid liquid mixing

Two non-solids phases can come into contact or “mix” in one of two ways: by the gradual dissolution of one phase into the other (liquid–liquid mixing), or by the combination of both phases at once to give a mixed, heterogeneous phase (solid–liquid mixing). The latter process is called “gelation”.

Liquid–liquid mixtures usually involve two components that are miscible. That is, they mix homogeneously on standing. Examples include water and ethanol/water mixtures, as well as blood/air mixtures. When one component has limited solubility in the other then partial pre-mixing may occur.

A classic example occurs when oil is added to water. As the amount of oil is increased, a point is reached when the mixture will not mix (“emulsify”). At this point, tiny droplets of oil are dispersed throughout the water in a stable manner by forming what are known as Pickering emulsions.

Solid–liquid mixtures or heterogeneous mixtures consist of two components that do not mix in any proportion, but form a uniform phase whose properties differ from those of either component separately. A familiar example is adding granulated sugar to water; each component forms its own separate phase without mixing with the other. The resulting solution has different properties from pure water or pure sugar solutions. Another example is making porridge: it can be done by heating an appropriate quantity of water with the cereal. The solid particles remain separate when stirred, but gradually form a viscous mixture as heating continues. Under certain conditions, porridge can be made without stirring at all by slowly adding hot water to the dry cereal then letting it stand for a few minutes, repeating until the porridge is ready.

Another example is mixing powdered laundry detergent with water before use. As soon as enough powder is added to create a thin paste, bubbles of carbon dioxide appear immediately in large numbers throughout the solution and can be heard popping and crackling. These bubbles are caused by carbon dioxide gas that forms inside microscopic cavities on the surface of each solid particle and escapes into solution after sufficient pressure has built up, leading to sudden collapse of the bubbles.

What are chemical process calculations?

Chemical process calculations are the mathematical models that represent the designs of chemical plants. These models help engineers analyze their design choices and evaluate alternative designs before investing money in building a plant. Chemical process calculations sit at the interface between thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, reaction engineering (kinetics), and unit operations (particularly mass transfer). For more you can check out –

What is involved in chemical process calculation?

The main work required for establishing a mathematical model for a given plant is to derive an expression for every balance law in the device, called a ‘reaction mechanism.’ A suitable combination of conservation equations with appropriate boundaries conditions will then be used to solve the problem. For example, if one wants to determine product rates, one will need to distinguish between steady-state, dynamic (transient), and pseudo-steady state situations. The appropriate model for each case must be selected depending on the problem under consideration.

What are the types of chemical process calculations?

There are two different kinds of chemical process calculations: quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative calculations give an exact solution to a given problem, while qualitative ones only provide useful information without giving the exact solution in closed form.

The most common calculation types used in chemical engineering are mass balances, energy balances, and momentum balance equations sitting on top of the material and species balances. These models can further be subdivided into various categories depending on what they represent physically/mathematically, such as homogeneous, heterogeneous, kinetic, adiabatic, or isothermal models.

What are the uses of chemical process calculations?

The main use for these calculations is to design plant and machine components. These models also help in troubleshooting a plant before it becomes operational and post-processing data after the plant has started production. These numerical methods can optimize plants (either by changing operating conditions or changing equipment sizes) by minimizing costs subject to various constraints such as product quality requirements, heat integration with other plants, etc. They can also be used to reconstruct how changes in process variables affect the outcome of the system’s operation by recording historical data on their performance (for example, using what-if scenarios). The choice of which type of mathematical model to use depends on the kind of problem being studied (kinetic, dynamic, etc.). A chemical engineer will make this choice with input from process engineers and chemists.

The chemical process calculations are the most important aspect of your laboratory work. They provide numerical data for experiments, and they help you predict what will happen in future experiments, which is crucial when developing new medicines or treatments. This article has given an overview of the basics of these types of calculations, but there’s so much more to learn.

5 Exercises After Delivery For Flat Stomach

It’s entirely normal to gain extra pounds during pregnancy, as it’s usually evident after delivery. Most moms find it exasperating having excess weight with big postpartum bellies and often look for ways to get their flat stomachs back. While weight loss naturally begins immediately after delivery, incorporating a few exercises hastens it.
Here are a few best exercises to help you get your flat stomach back.

Postpartum planks
You can begin doing postpartum planks a week after a successful vaginal delivery. However, if you delivered through C- section, it’s recommended that you wait for six to seven weeks before you are ready. This exercise builds your core and works your abdominal muscles while burning tummy fat.
The best way to do it as you start is to modify it to become more manageable and advance to the normal plank later. Start by lying flat on a mat and lift your upper body while using your hands and knees as support. Then, advance it by making it more complex until you can do the normal plank.

Heel slides
Heel slides work your abdominals while hitting your upper and lower abdominal muscles perfectly. It’s a good exercise for women delivered through C-section and can start a few weeks after giving birth.
In this exercise, lie flat with your back against a mat on the floor. Slide your heels towards your upper body while they still touch the surface. Bend your leg until you feel pressure on the knee. Hold that position before sliding it back. Repeat the process with the other leg to up to ten or more reps.

Pelvic tilts
Pelvic tilts work your core and burn fat effectively. They may be slightly painful to those delivered through C-section and may have to wait for seven to eight weeks after delivery before they are ready. However, women with successful vaginal delivery can start a week after.
To do this exercise, lie on a mat while raising your hip slightly with a pillow underneath the buttocks. Hold another pillow between your knees with your feet flat on the floor. Breath in while tightening your abs and drawing them in steadily. Hold for four to five seconds before releasing breath and relaxing. Repeat severally to exhaustion. A similar alternative to this exercise is the pelvic bridge workout.

Quadrupled leg lifts
This exercise engages your core while additionally working your hamstrings and glutes. Both women with C-section and vaginal delivery can begin doing it two to three weeks after delivery. To do the exercise, support your body with both hands and knees at right angles to the surfaces and body. Lift each leg, stretching it backward until you engage your core and leg muscles. Repeat severally to exhaustion.

Walking over long distances burns calories faster, especially if incorporated with some bit of jogging. Both women in C-section and vaginal deliveries can start this exercise a week after delivery as it’s entirely safe and painless.
Exercises after delivery can help cut down extra weight gained during pregnancy and finally get a flat stomach. However, it’s always good to listen to how your body responds so that these exercises don’t cause further post-delivery complications.

Why is health and fitness so important?

Working on your health and fitness are the most important things you can do to achieve your mental and physical wellness goals. But to accomplish this, you need to adopt good habits and take the required measures to lead a healthy and fit lifestyle. Therefore, you should strive to achieve wholesome health. So, why do health and fitness important?

It reduces your health risk

Are you worried about health conditions and diseases? Being cautious about what you eat and engaging in fitness activities will probably combat several diseases. Regardless of your current weight, keeping fit also decreases unhealthy triglycerides. This will, in turn, keeps your blood flowing smoothly hence reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. It also reduces the risk of developing; stroke, type 2 diabetes, depression, high blood pressure, anxiety, and more.

It increases life expectancy

Researchers have proven that consuming healthy foods and having regular physical activity reduces the risk of premature mortality. In other terms, we can say that people who live healthier life tend to live longer. This is because eating healthy food and regular exercise reduces the risks of developing diseases such as cancer and heart diseases which are leading causes of death.

It strengthens your bones and muscles.

Doing all kinds of fitness- muscle strengthening, aerobic, and flexibility can slow the loss of bone density. Apart from that, they keep your muscle, joints, and bones healthy. With this, you’ll be able to do your daily activities and actions. Similarly, it reduces the risk of falling and fall-related injuries. Regular exercises also help in eliminating arthritis and other rheumatic conditions that affect the joints.

Weight management

If you want to get to or stay at a healthy weight, what you eat and how you engage in physical activities play a significant role. Consuming more calories than the amount of calories you burn will probably lead to weight gain. But if you want to cut your weight down, doing physical activities and adjusting your diet would be the best idea. Therefore, health and fitness should be the key to weight management.

It increases your energy levels.

People who are facing various medical conditions can increase their energy levels by engaging in multiple exercises. In other words, fitness is the actual energy booster for healthy people. Similarly, keeping healthy and fit will help you stay active. This will help you run activities that require physical fitness, such as hiking to the top mountains.

Finally, challenge yourself to meet daily physical activity goals and don’t forget a healthy diet. It may be tiresome and time-consuming, but it should be part of your daily routine if you want a good life and wellness.

How Would You Summarize 2020?

2020 was a year that most of us were not expecting. With high hopes for the New Year, it wasn’t long before many started to worry about a new global pandemic. In the United States, schools were shut down, everyone was told to stay home, and many people found themselves out of work. While things did open up more throughout the year, the threat of the virus was still large and mask mandates were put into place to help keep others safe. By the end of the year, the Covid-19 vaccine was designed and began to be distributed.

In addition to dealing with all of the parts of Covid-19, many riots and protests began to take over the country against police brutality against black individuals. After the death of George Floyd, the country erupted and groups like Black Lives Matter and more started to take over different cities in order to get their message out there. In some areas like in Washington, these groups were able to take over full parts of the city.

The 2020 election turned into a tumultuous show as well. Joe Biden and Donald Trump faced off together with two different views on how to handle pretty much everything in the country. From how to handle Covid-19, how to handle trade, and even taxes, there was not much the two parties agreed on. The election ended in favor of Joe Biden and Kamala Harris, though a large number of people on the Republican side, and even some on the Democrat side, worried about the legitimacy of the election and whether the abnormalities seen where fraud or just the result of more voters voting by mail.

The year of 2020 has been a long one for everyone, from the crazy election, many protests, and families struggling to get through the pandemic and help their children get the best education possible while being sent home.

Chemical Process Calculations

In society, we use products every day. From cleaning items to those which we wash with, there are many formulations out there. Usually, we measure the quality of what we have with how well it works. We want to notice results in order to repurchase. Generally, the name brands have built a reputation for themselves. We know that teams of chemical engineers and other scientists worked hard in the lab making the formulations. These brands continue to innovate and put out something that works.

Process Calculations
Process Calculations

There are a lot of books out there that teach more about chemicals. One good e-book on the market is “Chemical Process Calculations.” This book will answer any questions regarding chemical compositions. You can get it on Amazon for around six dollars Canadian. Additionally, you can also order a paperback copy for around $24 Canadian.

This resource will be invaluable to researchers. It talks about concepts such as material balance as well as energy balance. The text has been prepared for undergraduates to learn more about chemical engineering. Those who are interested in the subject personally can read up on it as well. You can expect a lot of mathematical calculations in it as well.

This book is great for people who want to learn online during COVID. There can be many advantages to educating yourself. You can also become more involved in the manufacturing side of your business too when you read books like this. It will teach you a lot about formulas. This can allow you to have better conversations with the chemical engineers on your team as well.

With a price point that is friendly to the times, the book “Chemical Process Calculations” is a must-read. You will be well equipped for real world challenges when you have a book that is university material.

Tooth implant process

Modern dentistry has provided advanced technologies and solutions to solve many problems related to dental implants. Dental implants are the process of replacing missing teeth with artificial teeth. Provides the same comfort, look, and feel to everyone. To briefly explain the dental implant process, it can be said that firstly, the fixator is inserted inside the jaw. The crown is placed on the implant so that the structure resembles that of other natural teeth. The person receives the appropriate medication so that he can relax. Then the affected area is anesthetized, on which the expert must operate. The process will be easy to understand by following the following steps:

Dental implants are generally performed in two steps, as they include two surgeries:

First surgery

In the first surgery, the accessories are inserted into the jaw. An incision or cut is made on the surface of the gums where there are no teeth.

This further exposes the primary bone. Continuous drilling is made to make an opening in the bone where the piece must later be inserted. During the examination of this bone density through X-rays, a bone graft is made when necessary to replace it with thicker bone.

The implants are then rolled or wrapped at the prepared site.

The site will then be closed for a period of three to four months. During this period the fusion between the piece and the jaw occurs.

The person receives some instructions. Medications and many antibiotics are given. A person has to make several visits to the dentist. You have to keep your teeth very clean and not put too much pressure on the jaw.

The second surgery

During the second surgery, when the stent is fused firmly, the stents are fused. Struts are small connectors made of metal. The cut is made to expose the implant.

Cap or struts are attached to the fixture. Some doctors put the caps on in the first surgery and let the portion fuse. This saves time for a second surgery.

The last and final step in dental implants is to replace the cap with the impression shaft. The impression is taken on the teeth, the post, and the surrounding teeth. The lid is replaced for two to three weeks when the portion is restored.

The restoration is similar to a crown that is attached to the abutment or direct part.

There is a single tooth implant to replace a single tooth and multiple teeth to replace multiple teeth or to support bridges. The second surgery takes less than an hour compared to the first. Use a soft toothbrush for proper abutment cleaning after dental implants.

These accessories prevent moving the teeth. The ideal person for dental implants is one who has not taken much medication, does not suffer from bleeding disorders, is in good financial health, and has an adequate jaw to support the implant.

How Long Does Dental Implant Pain Last?

Dental implant placement can make a significant difference to your appearance, confidence, and overall quality of life. People who require it tend to worry about the duration of dental implant pain associated with the procedure. Here is a pain timeline to help you know what you should expect after the procedure.

dental implant surgery

During Surgery

Just like other procedures at the dentist, dental implant surgery will involve the administration of local anesthesia to the surgery site. The injection will numb the surrounding area. Consequently, you will feel little to no discomfort or pain during the surgery.

Several Hours After

Two to four hours after leaving the dentist’s office, you will most probably start feeling pain while the anesthesia wears off. You might experience a slight throbbing pain in the surgery area and irritation of your gums.

After One Week

Typically, you will feel some pain or pressure during the first week after the procedure, particularly on impact, for example, when clenching your teeth or chewing. Patients tend to take pain medications during this period. There will be swelling as well, but this usually subsides after 3-5 days.

At this point, you will need to continue following the dentist’s recovery instructions.

After Two Weeks

While the exact experience with dental implant pain may vary from one individual to another, the general expectation is for the pain not to last longer than 10 days. That implies you should not be feeling pain two weeks after the surgery.

If you still feel pain after two or more weeks, this could be due to issues like tissue or nerve damage, infection, or a failed implant. You should contact your dentist immediately.

To increase your chances of having a successful implant placement, be sure to choose an experienced dentist. Such a seasoned professional will have helpful advice when you contact him or her to complain of pain. After your surgery, keep the lines of communication open with the dentist. Remember, maintaining good oral hygiene and following the post-surgery instructions will also go a long way toward helping you minimize the duration of dental implant pain.

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